Wednesday, 18 June 2014

An Triail - Summary in English

This is a summary of An Triail scene by scene in English.I did not write this, i found it on the internet so I cannot take any credit for it but I thought it would be helpful.

An Triail -  summary

Act 1

Scene 1
Major Characters: Maire is the only major character in this scene, although the Prosecutor does a lot to set up the entire situation

Curtain still down
  • A bit of the song "Siúil, a Ghrá" is heard, then newspaper boys dash in, in front of the curtain, yelling "Evening Paper! Terrible Tragedy!"
  • We hear the voice of the protagonist, Máire, saying that she killed he own child before she was a girl. Girls grow up to be women, but her daughter is free, and will not grow up to be the "yielding silly girl" to any man.
  • The prosecutor steps out before the curtain, chases away the newspaper boys, and addresses the audience as if they were the jury. He asks people to ignore anything they have heard about the case, to think only about the testimony they hear. He characterizes the crime as "an ugly, barbarous act" that demands judgment and venegance from God and from the people. And he emphasize that even though she is a young girl, there is no room for pity in the jury's judgment of the prisoner
Curtain rises, we see the courtroom
  • Máire is called and comes to stand in the witness box. The clerk asks, "Guilty or Not Guilty?"
  • At that question, Máire comes forward and addresses the audience directly (so that we step out of the courtroom setting, so to speak).
  • Máire says that "they" think that they will find everything out, but there are things they will never know . . . a certain name that was never mentioned . . . the night that started it all, at the dance at the school house . . . the song that she sang . . .
  • We move to the next scene, which takes place in the school house, on that fateful night that started it all.

Scene 2
Major Characters: Máire and Pádraig are key players in this scene -- but Máire's mother, even though we don't meet her, can definitely be felt as a character in this scene. Liam is also important, given his testimony in the trial

At the school house, where the dance is being held
  • Young boys and girls abound, with Colm as "dance master" for the evening. Máire sits by herself.
  • Colm asks Máire for a song, and she sings "Siúil, a Ghrá". As she is singing, Pádraig, a new schoolmaster, comes in and stops to listen.
  • Then Colm calls for a dance. Máire doesn't have a partner, so Colm introduces her to Pádraig -- whom she had noticed playing the harmonium at Mass.
  • Pádraig gets orange juice for both of them, and they chat, through which we learn that Máire is very shy and rarely goes to dances. Her mother wants her to be a nun, she is recently out of school, and she was only allowed to go to the dance because it was in the school house, the priest was there, and her older brother Liam brought her.
Same physical setting, but it becomes the courtroom
  • Pádraig and Máire go off to join the other dancers, and Liam's date, Beití, calls to Liam.
  • As Liam turns to join the dance, his name is called by the clerk of the court. The stage darkens and only Liam is in the spotlight, where he is questioned by the attorneys.
  • It is established that Liam is the oldest brother of "the prisoner", but he wastes no time at all in making it clear that he had no responsibility for his sister -- "I'm not her keeper!". He was with someone else, he has no idea how she got home or what might have happened, and he only took her because their mother hounded him to do it.
Back to the dance
  • Beití calls Liam again, and this time they go off, and we hear general goodbyes as people leave the dance

Scene 3
Major Characters: Máire and Pádraig have the scene to themselves.

All the action takes place on a bridge, over a stream, as Pádraig walks Máire home.
  • They stop at the bridge, and Pádraig is somewhat winded from the walk. (Clues in the script suggest he is at least 10 years older than Máire, but he could be more).
  • Pádraig spouts poetry to describe the beauty of the evening, and Máire is much impressed by his talk.
  • Then Pádraig begins to sweet talk Máire. Among the things that come out:
    • Máire is to sweet and lovely a girl to be locked up in a convent.
    • Pádraig planned on becoming a priest, but was thrown out for smoking a cigarette where/when he shouldn't have been, so he went into teaching.
    • He is married, but his wife has always been ill, apparently has a terminal disease at this point, and "has never been able to be a true wife to me".
  • Máire quite suddenly decides she had best hurry home, as her mother will be waiting up and watching for her.
  • Pádraig's last words in the scene: Don't say anything about this to your mother.
Scene 4
“The Mother's Testimony", a very short scene. Major Characters: Máire's Mother is interviewed by Aturnae 2.

Similar to the scene-within-a-scene trick pulled with Liam earlier, we start with one setting but imply another.
The mother comes in, kneels, and starts praying. The spotlight shines on her, and her testimony begins.
  • Much as did Liam, the first thing Máire's mother does is to deny responsibility, using almost exactly the same words, in fact.
  • Her mother talks at length about how her husband died a few months before her youngest was born, and how she slaved with no one to help her.
  • What did she get in return? Shame, and the mockery of her neighbors.
  • The attorney probes about her concern for others' opinions, and whether she supported her daughter when she was in trouble.
  • The mother retorts that Máire brought it on herself.
  • The attorney then brings up the suggestion that the mother probably tried to induce a miscarriage.
  • She replies that it isn't a sin to put an end to "something unclean, cursed by God and Man".
  • She leaves weeping -- and perhaps feeling that she, herself, is the victim in this whole situation.

Scene 5
Major Characters: Máire and again have the scene to themselves, in the school house

All action takes place in the school house, at night.
  • Pádraig is waiting impatiently, pacing, grumbling, looking at his watch.
  • Máire runs in, breathless. She had to wait until her mother went to sleep before she could slip away, coming the back way, as Pádraig told her to do. Pádraig is annoyed that she is late.
  • Pádraig bemoans his fate a good deal. His position forces him to love Máire in secrecy.
  • Máire asks about Pádraig's wife, and feels that they are doing her an injustice.
  • Pádraig is not very sympathetic about his wife, whom we describes as "grumbling, complaining". He clearly feels that he is the unfortunate one in this triangle.
  • Pádraig passionately declares that it is only his love for Máire that keeps him going, that the thanks God for her every morning. He also reveals that his wife could live for years, long years of "purgatory".
  • Pádraig asks Máire to declare her love for him. Then he strongly reminds her never to mention him to anyone, nor to write to him. She says that they wouldn't get his name even if they tore her heart out and crushed it into tiny pieces.
  • Máire is still feeling guilty, but Pádraig assures her that their love is no sin, is a blessed thing even. He takes a ring off his finger and puts it on hers, declaring that as far as he is concerned, she is his wife now.

Scene 6
A very short scene in which Máire goes to confession.
The confessional
  • Máire starts her confession with the usual formula.
  • As she is about to enumerate her sins, the priest interrupts her. He says that she must break with her lover, forever, never to speak to him again.
  • Máire says she can't do that.
  • The priest reminds her that of Our Savior's admonition "if your right hand offend you, cut if off." It is better to be without a hand than to commit a sin.
  • Máire won't break with her lover, so the priest says he cannot give her absolution.
  • We go to black, as Máire collapses to the ground

Scene 7
In one of the longer scenes we've had so far, we get to see the whole family interacting: Máire, her Mother, and her brothers Liam and Seán.
Máire's home
  • The family is saying the rosary together. When they get to "conceived without sin", Máire leaps up, crying, and runs from the room. Her mother pursues, but doesn't catch her. But by the time she has come back, Seán is studying his books, and Liam is intercepted trying to sneak out.
  • Mother and Liam have an argument about Liam's attentions to Beití de Búrca. This includes a speech about how the burden of being both father and mother to the family has been placed on her, and she would do her duty -- get Máire into the convent, Seán into the priesthood, and Liam running the farm and taking care of his mother in her old age.
  • When she leaves to find Máire again, Liam and Seán talk about Liam sneaking out the window to meet Beití, after Mother goes to sleep. Seán will unlock the door so he can get back in -- but Liam says it is pointless to pursue Beití as long as he is under his mother's control, and Seán agrees that she is unreasonable.
  • Mother returns, not finding Máire, and leaves again. Seán says that Mother is too hard on Máire, harder than she is on the brothers.
  • Liam mentions that Máire doesn't take Holy Communion anymore, and that he has heard her sneaking out of the window, as well. Seán adds that she is often sick in the morning, but that Máire made him promise not to tell.
  • Alas, Mother heard that last bit, and drags the information out of Seán just as Máire comes in.
  • She won't say where she has been, although she lets slip that there was not one there to meet her. Everyone leaves, except Seán, who is turning out the lights, etc.
Same physical setting, but it becomes the courtroom (as we have seen elsewhere in the play)
  • The clerk calls Seán's name, and he is questioned about ratting on his sister.
  • Attorney 2, in particular, suggests that the prospective priest -- who says that he was going to be a priest at that time -- showed little charity or love to his sister.
  • Seán's defense: his mother would hound him until he told what he knew, there was nothing he could do, because she would find out sooner or later.
Back in the home
  • Mother comes in with a bowl of something for Máire to drink and says that it will "fix" her, basically, and that she'll take it every day until things are right.
  • Máire throws the bowl away, and mother demands to know who has shamed them, and whether they are getting married. "You have to be married, you could go to live in England . . .". As the sons drag Mother off, she is hurling curses at the unknown lover, and at her daughter.
  • Left alone, Máire reveals that Pádraig was not at the meeting place, the school was dark. But she'll never throw away the little she has received from him, and never mention his name or write to him.
  • Máire realizes she faces her future alone. The scene closes with "Siúil, a ghrá" in the background.
Scene 8
Major Characters: A courtroom scene, where Attorneys 1 & 2 question Bean Uí Chinsealigh (abbreviated Bean C below)
As people are walking back and forth in the street, the light picks out Bean Uí Chinsealigh, and we are in court, once again.
  • Attorney 1 establishes that Bean C had advertised for an assistant or helper, to help in the household ("a domestic"), and one girl came and worked, staying in Bean C's house, until it was discovered that she was pregnant (the witness objects to such a vulgar subject even being discussed).
  • At that point, Bean C found the girl a "place of refuge".
  • Attorney 2 takes over, and determines that Bean C had five kids, and didn't mention it in the ad; Máire was the only one who responded to the ad, without any references; and that the ad promised frequent time off, and four pounds a week.
  • He asks what she paid Máire, and gets the answer that she said she would raise Máire's salary later if she proved satisfactory. The Attorney clearly establishes that Máire was quite satisfactory, and after repeated questioning, Bean C admits that she paid 2 pounds 10 shillings a week -- because she wasn't trained and didn't have references, she could have been a criminal!.
  • After three months of good service from Máire, Bean C "gave her the road". She says that she couldn't keep her, what would the neighbors and other people way. She couldn't have her children in contact with the likes of Máire.
  • The Attorney points out that she was happy to hire Máire when she might have been a criminal, but not when she was pregnant.
  • Attorney 1 establishes that Bean C gave Máire a week's notice, and talked to a friend to get Máire a place in the "home".
Scene 9
Major Characters: We met Bean Uí Chinsealigh in the previous scene. She had hired Máire to work in her home, helping with all the domestic duties and the five children. At the end of Bean C's testimony, she reaffirmed that she talked to a friend and got Máire a place in a "home" for girls like her, presumably. In this scene, we see how that came about, as most of it is a conversation between Máire and a Social Worker (SW below).
The scene takes place in the house of Bean C.
  • In the first part of this scene, Bean C's friend the Social Worker (SW) comes for tea. Bean C reveals that she is worried about Máire, that she can't keep her, in her condition. The SW asks to talk with Máire.
  • Máire and the SW talk alone. Máire is a bit alarmed by the questions about her background, and gives a false name, as well as avoiding some questions.
  • SW tells her she has to leave, and Máire jumps up to leave on the spot -- but with more questions, reveals that she has no friends to go to, and says she would rather drown in the river than go back to her family. The SW promises to find her a place in a home for girls like her, and then, after it is all over, she can forget all about it and start a new life.
  • Maíre leaves, and we find ourselves in court, where the SW is called to the witness box.
  • Attorney 1 establishes that Máire was stubborn and wouldn't give any information about her family, so the best the SW could do was to send her to the home.
  • Attorney 2 tries to shake the SW's testimony that this home for girls was the best place that she could send Máire, but the SW sticks to her position.

Scene 10
Major Characters: Máire has moved to the "home" that the social worker found her, in the previous two scenes. She's working in the laundry, and much of this scene consists of chat with her co-workers, Dailí, Pailí, and Mailí, as well as Nábla. We also have a brief appearance by Seáinín an Mhótair, and the Social Worker from the previous couple of scenes puts in an appearance. This scene concludes Act I.
The laundry at the "home", where the young women who are 'sheltered' there work.
  • The scene opens with lots of "girls" working at ironing, folding, and so on -- Máire is sewing. The conversation from her co-workers starts with how hot it is, and the general style is sarcastic wit.
  • A flurry of excitement strikes the girls when Seánín shows up -- a little old guy that doesn't interest them personally, but who carries news of the outside world, and they are clearly desperate for that. But he has no news.
  • Seánín notices the new girl, Máire, and suggests that she avoid company with the other women there, the ones teasing him.
  • Seánín just wants to pick up the laundry bundles and get going, but they tease and cajole him, trying to make him stay a little longer.
  • After he goes, they turn to Máire and start talking. Mailí announces that she'll be leaving soon, having found a foster home for her child. Máire doesn't know about these, but the girls explain that a foster home is the key to getting out -- a good religious couple willing to raise someone else's child. They also explain that the birth mother is not allowed to know anything about the people who adopt the child.
  • Máire can't conceive of giving up her child and never knowing how things turned out, and her questions cause some friction. But as they realize that she is just terribly naive, they take some pity on her, and one -- who says she is getting an apartment and working in a factory -- says that Máire can visit her when she gets out.
  • The bell rings for tea, and they discover that the Social Worker (SW) -- whom the girls despise -- is coming. Many of them flee, and the SW dismisses the rest to tea, except Máire.
  • She tells Máire that she can go back to the housekeeping job, because the SW has found a foster home for Máire's daughter. The doctor has examined the baby, the documents are ready, all she has to do is sign and she is free to go.
  • Máire is incensed, and a big argument ensues. Máire refuses to sign, and figures to get an apartment and a factory job. The SW tries to reason with her, suggesting the child will have a better life, and that a single woman has a difficult time (even without child), but Máire says that she would not marry a man who would not take her daughter as well.

Act 2

Scene 1

Major Characters: The Manager of the factory where Máire finds work is the main character, giving testimony in court under questionsing from Attorney 2.
Setting Action
In Court
  • Attorney 2 questions the Manager about the work Máire did, and what she received for it. The Manager is a well-meaning kindly man, who does his best for his workers (and pays them above average).
  • Questions reveal that Máire's job was to clean the bathrooms, washing the floors and rinsing the basins every day. She worked ten hours a week for three pounds' salary. Attorney 2 suggests that that wasn't much pay for a woman with a child, but the manager is doing his best.
  • The manager also reveals that she portrayed herself as a widow, and used the name Bean Uí Laoire. Both the manager and other workers donated money to help her out.
  • The Attorney suggests that she was fired, but the manager says that Máire just stopped coming to work. He sent the matron to check on her, but there was no house at the address given. Gossip in the court reveals that the house had collapsed.


Scene 2

Major Characters: Attorney 2 questions the Landlady where Máire had been staying. Besides a lot of general bystanders, Seáinín and Mailí reappear, from the earlier scene in the "home".
(The scene opens with the paper boys calling that houses are falling down in Dublin.)
Setting Action
Attorney 2 questions the Landlady.
  • The Landlady quickly establishes that she didn't believe that Máire was a widow, and that she knew she had an illegitimate child.
  • The Landlady used to take care of Máire's daughter, for a little extra money. The Attorney makes the point that Máire didn't have much money on which to raise a child.
Flashback to the house collapsing.
  • The Landlady is giving her account to a reporter. She noticed the wall buckle, and the ceiling starting to fall in, so she grabbed her kids and rushed them out of the house. Neighbors call the police and the fire brigade.
  • Máire returns and finds that the Landlady forgot about Máire's daughter. She rushes into the building and brings her child our, safe.
  • Seáinín an Mhótair comes along and asks what happened. The neighbors explain that the Landlady and her kids have gone to someone else's house -- but no one bothers about Máire, because she's a liar, unfriendly, has an illegitimate child, and so on.
  • Seáinín goes over to Máire and recognizes her. He's very upset about the unChristian behavior of the neighbors. (It turns out that a heavy beam fell in the right place and saved the child.)
  • Mailí comes along, so Seáinín takes Máire and her daughter to Mailís place.


Scene 3

Major Characters: Mailí is questioned by both Attorneys on the street.
Setting Action
A street corner where Mailí is plying her trade
  • The Attorneys reluctantly approach Mailí on the street to ask her some questions. They ask about her taking Máire into her own home.
  • Mailí speaks bitterly about how the "reputable" women of the community would have nothing to do with Máire and her child. Questioned about the size of her home, Mailí replies that at least it isn't falling down, nor is it "an inhospitable house", like those of the "reputable" women.
  • Asked about Máire's financial situation, Mailí tells them that Máire lost most of what little she had, clothes for her and her daughter, when the house collapsed. She also says that Máire won't go back to work, that after the house incident she just can't bear to have her child out of her sight.
  • When Attorney 1 asks Mailí if her house is suitable for such a girl and her child, she tells them both to go to Hell.

Scene 4

Major Characters: Mailí and Máire talk about her situation.
Setting Action
In Mailí's house
  • Mailí tries to get Máire to pull herself together, and suggests that the father of her child should help, but. Máire is quite defensive.
  • Mailí then asks about going back to work, but Máire can't separate herself from her child. Mailí says that Máire can't keep an eye on her forever, but Máire wants to stay close to her a little longer.
  • Finally, Mailí says that the landlady would allow Máire to stay free, and the lodgers would chip in a little bit, if Máire did some cleaning around the place. Máire is delighted with the prospect.

Scene 5

Major Characters: Colm testifies in court, then bumps into Máire on the street.
Setting Action
In Court
  • Attorney 1 brings up the night of that fateful dance at the school house. Colm immediately says that it wasn't his fault, he just introduced them.
The court players disappear, and Máire walks across the stage.
  • Colm recognizes Máire and calls to her. He invites her into a café for a cup of coffee.

Scene 6

Major Characters: Máire and Colm have coffee together, but it breaks off abruptly. Máire is at home when Mailí brings home two lads -- who turn out to be Colm and Pádraig.
Setting Action
In the café
  • Small talk: Colm wondered what happened to Máire, saw her brother Seán and thinks he looks good as a priest. He reports that Liam is getting married, which she didn't know.
  • Colm tries to invite her out, on a kind of date, but she puts him off, rather clearly. Colm is surprised to hear she doesn't have a boyfriend, and brings up Pádraig.
  • On questioning, Colm tells her that Pádraig's wife died about a year ago, a month after Máire left. He reports that Pádraig was back in play, so to speak, pursuing, and being pursued by, the ladies. At that news, Máire leaps up, not having tasted her coffee, and dahses home.
Colm pays the tab and leaves, the waitress cleans the table, and Máire re-appears at the table -- presumably now a table in a room in Mailí's house
  • Máire is writing a letter to Pádraig. She is writing that she knows he will come to her, now that he is free . . . and we hear his voice outside.
  • Mailí comes in to say she met a couple of fellows in the street, and she wants Máire to come down and chat with them.
  • Pádraig comes in, somewhat drunk, and recognizes Máire. She mentions her daughter, Pádraigín, and tells him she's his daughter.
  • Máire is very excited, telling him what a wonderful daughter they have, and she wants to wake her and bring her in, but Pádraig doesn't want to see her.
  • Pádraig tells Máire that he re-married six months ago, the young schoolmistress who was after him. Máire realizes that he came to the house not for her, but for Mailí. She suggests that Pádraig probably seduced this woman as well, and had to marry her. Pádraig denies this -- and calls Máire a harlot!
  • Colm and Mailí come in, in good spirits, and with a bottle. Colm praises Pádraig, for burying one woman and marrying another in the same year. He raises a toast to every fool of a woman who swallows his flattering words.
  • Colm sees Máire and wants her to have a drink before he realizes who she is. Pádraig is finally embarrassed, and charges out of the house, with Mailí calling after the lads to stay.

Scene 7

Major Characters: Mailí testifies again, very briefly, this time in court.
Setting Action
In court
  • Mailí tells the court that she smelled gas in her own room at the top of the stairs. She rushed down to see that cushions and rags were stuffed around the door.
  • When she opened the door, she could barely breathe. She pressed a kerchief to her face, and went in to find the oven open, the gas flowing, the infant's head inside the oven, and Máire pressed against the child's legs. It was too late, there were both dead.
  • Mailí concludes that Máire couldn't let her child go into eternal darkness without her mother at her side.
  • We hear the voice of Máire, saying the same thing it did to open the play, that her daughter now would never grow up to be a woman, and thus was free.

Scene 8

Major Characters: All the major characters of the play stop by the grave for a final comment. Each one speaks his/her piece and leaves.
Setting Action
At the graveyard
  • Attorney 2 observes that the coroner's jury ruled the case a murder/suicide. He suggests that they only had the testimony before them, and asks the rest of the cast, who know more about Máire, who should be blamed for the deaths.
  • Her Mother says not to look at her, that she raised her as a good Christian.
  • Seán says that Máire brought them shame and forced him to leave the priesthood.
  • Liam says that Beití broke off their engagement, because she couldn't stand the notoriety (of the suicide, etc.).
  • The Manager of the factory just observes that he had her clean the bathrooms, because someone had to do it.
  • The woman who employed her as a domestic (Bean Uasal) says the couldn't keep her, because what would the neighbors say?
  • The Social Worker says she did her best, but that Máire was stubborn and wouldn't give up her child.
  • Seáinín says that she broke the rules, and that whoever breaks the rules loses the match.
  • A few random bystanders observe what a lonely grave it is, with both mother and child in the same coffin, calling for God to have mercy on her soul.
  • Mailí says that Máire was faithful, she never said who the father was, taking the secret to her grave. Whoever he was, he should repent of what he has done. She asks for God's mercy on Máire and every sinner like her, and finally, for mercy on both Máire and her daughter.
  • Mailí leaves, and we hear Máire's voice, singing "Siúil, a ghrá". Pádraig comes and stands silently by the grave. Then he pulls the collar of his coat up around his neck, like he's cold, and leaves.

Biology Revision Quesions - with Answers (part 3)

It still would not upload them all on th e2 posts for me so here are the last few!

Once again, nnot mine, i cannot take credit for this!

During 2009 swine flu spread through the population of many countries. Younger people were more at risk of becoming ill with swine flu than older people. Using your knowledge of the immune system, suggest a reason for this.
(Older people) previous exposure / antibodies (or active immunity or memory cells)
Give two excretory organs in the human body other than the kidney.
Skin, Lungs
Give the part of the nephron in which each of the following takes place:
1. Filtration,
2. Reabsorption of amino acids.
1. Bowman's capsule or glomerulus
2. proximal tubule
Suggest a reason why it is important to know a person’s blood group.
transfusion/ to avoid reaction by mother to foetus/ to prevent
loss of foetus
To which kingdom does Rhizopus belong?
True or False. Rhizopus is a member of the animal kingdom.
Explain what is meant by the axial skeleton.
vertebral column and skull (and rib cage)
What is a tissue?
Cells with common function (or with common structure)
Give one structural difference between DNA and RNA.
(DNA) contains thymine or RNA contains uracil
Name a part of the flower from which fruit forms.
Ovary / Carpel / Receptacle
Amylase is an enzyme that is found in saliva. State the substrate and the product of this enzyme.
True or False. Xylem transports water in plants.
 Osmosis has been described as a special case of diffusion. Explain why.
movement of water (solvent) / along concentration gradient / through a selectively permeable membrane
Suggest a treatment for a named disorder of the musculoskeletal system.
Disorder: Osteoporosis /
Treatment: Diet rich in Calcium and Vitamin D and medication
Name a tissue found in plants. Give a function of the tissue referred to.
Dermal or ground or vascular (or xylem or phloem) or meristematic. Function relevant to tissue
Suggest a reason why myxomatosis is no longer a major threat to the Irish rabbit population.
natural immunity or Natural Selection or virus mutated
Give two features of the nephron that aid filtration.
large surface area / porous capillary walls/ (lining) one cell thick / efferent arteriole narrower than afferent arteriole or arterioles in arteriole out or arteriole to capillary network
True or False. A potato is a modified stem.
Give three examples of the ways in which fruits are involved in seed dispersal.
Animal dispersal /  Winged / Wind / Self dispersal / Water Dispersal / Human dispersal
Give an account of the role of each of the following in photosynthesis: 1. ATP, 2. NADP.
1. provides or stores energy / reduction of CO2 or glucose formation or for dark stage
2. accepts electrons / hydrogen carrier / for the dark stage or glucose formation or for dark stage
Name a cell organelle, apart from the nucleus, in which DNA is found.
Chloroplast / mitochondria
Name a tissue found in animals. Give a function of the tissue referred to.
Epithelial or Muscular or Connective or Nervous or named example. Function relevant to tissue
Outline briefly how a virus replicates (reproduces).
attaches to (host) cell / introduces nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) / (host) DNA inactivated / viral DNA or RNA replicated / using resources of host cell / protein coat formed / assembly (of virus)
Genes are found on what structures within a cell?
Chromosome (allow chromatid) (Do not allow DNA)
Give a function for each of the following: 1. Red marrow, 2. Cartilage, 3. Tendon.
1. formation of blood cells
2. protection (absorbs shock) or reduces friction or allows bone elongation
3. joins muscle to bone
Distinguish between batch and continuous flow food processing using micro-organisms in the food industry.
Batch: fixed amount of nutrients added at beginning or (bioreactor) emptied at end of production
Continuous: nutrients continuously fed into bioreactor or product removed continuously
Suggest why it is necessary for a plant to disperse its seeds.
To avoid competition / colonisation
The use of one species to control the population of another species is called biological control. Suggest one advantage and one disadvantage of biological control.
Advantage: environmentally friendly or specific or (may be) inexpensive
Disadvantage: upsets balance of nature (or described e.g. predator population will fall when prey becomes scarce allowing prey to increase again or introduced species may become a pest or predator may change to a different prey) or (may be) expensive.
Explain what is meant by the term tissue culture
Cells grown on (or in) medium or cells grown outside organism
What is the function of the spindle during cell division?
To contract / to separate chromosomes /  chromatid / to attach
Explain what is meant by an antagonistic muscle pair and give an example in the human body.
pair of muscles that have opposite effects or explained
biceps and triceps or other example
True or false. Stage 1 of respiration requires oxygen.
Name a group of biomolecules in the blood which are too large to pass through the filtration system of the nephron.
Is the blood in the Aorta oxygenated or deoxygenated?
Following dispersal most seeds enter a period of dormancy. What is dormancy?
a period of rest, inactivity or non-vegetative state before growth
Tissues grow by cell division. Name the type of cell division by which tissues grow.
Give one application of tissue culture.
Appropriate application
Name the nitrogenous bases whose first letters are A and C.
Adenine and Cytosine
Apart from water, name one other substance which is found in sweat.
urea/ salt/ named salt/ lipids/ hormones
What is meant by sterile?
Free from all organisms
Name the container in which you grew the leaf yeast.
Petri dish / (agar) plate
Organs are found in both plants and animals. What is meant by the term organ?
A group of tissues / Structure composed of two or more tissues
State the location in the human body of the following muscles which are used for breathing: diaphragm, intercostals.
Below the lungs and above the stomach
Between the ribs
To which kingdom does Amoeba belong?
Protista or  Protoctista
Give an advantage of dormancy.
Ensures springtime germination
Give one reason why the wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the wall of the right ventricle.
Left ventricle pumps blood around body. Right ventricle only pumps blood to the nearby lungs
True or false. Stage 1 of respiration takes place in the cytoplasm.
Name one organ found in plants.
Leaf / Root / Stem / Bud / Tuber / Flower/ bulbs/ Rhizome …
How did you measure the breathing rate or the pulse?
count number of breaths or number of pulses / per unit time OR sensor (data logger)
Where in the cell would you expect to find most DNA?
Is the cell of Amoeba prokaryotic or eukaryotic? Give a reason for your answer.
Eukaryotic. Membrane-bound  organelles or named  membrane-bound  organelle
What is meant by the germination of seeds?
Is the beginning of the growth after a period of dormancy
Name the stage in the plant’s life cycle that follows dormancy.
What is meant by pollution?
Any harmful addition to the ecosystem (e.g. not acceptable)
What is meant by nitrogen fixation?
The conversion of nitrogen into nitrates.
Give an example of pollution which may result from domestic (household) or industrial or agricultural activity.
True or false. Stage 2 of respiration takes place in the cytoplasm.
Give one function of the contractile vacuole in Amoeba.
Osmoregulation or explained
Describe briefly one way by which the skin helps to retain heat in cold conditions.
(erect) hair / hair traps air / arteriole contracts (and keeps blood warm) / pores close / adipose (tissue) / Goose pimples
Name one human activity that causes pollution.
Any relevant activity but not naturally occurring catastrophe
What is a chromosome?
A structure made of DNA and protein which can be inherited.
State one way in which it is possible to produce seedless fruits in horticulture.
e.g. (Growth) regulators
What is the role of the bicuspid valve?
stops back flow (of blood) / blood from atrium to ventricle
Name two habitats from the ecosystem you have studied.
Ecosystem: Woodland
Habitats: Rotting log / beneath a stone
Suggest one reason why a contractile vacuole is more active in freshwater amoebae than in marine amoebae.
Freshwater more hypotonic or more H2O intake or reference to concentration difference
State two problems associated with waste disposal in Ireland.
1.        e.g. Finding land for landfill sites
2.        e.g. Litter / pollution or named form of pollution .
For hair colour black (B) is dominant over brown (b). Seán is heterozygous (Bb) and Máire is homozygous (bb). 1. What colour is Seán’s hair? 2. What colour is Máire’s hair?
1. Black
2. Brown
DNA contains the instructions needed to make protein. These instructions are called the … code.
How may apparatus be sterilised?
In an autoclave @121 °C for 15 minutes
Write the balanced equation for photosynthesis.
light energy
6CO2 + 6H2O à C6H12O6 + 6O2
Seeds may remain inactive for a period before germination. What term is used to describe this period of inactivity?
List two ways of minimising waste.
Reduce / Reuse / Recycle
Red hair in humans is recessive to all other hair colours. A red-haired woman and a black-haired man, whose own father was red-haired, started a family. What is the % chance of obtaining offspring with red hair?
Give a brief account of the Theory of Natural Selection.
organisms have variations / that are inherited/ beneficial / will reproduce/ struggle for existence / pass on these variations / ‘Survival /of fittest’ / origin of species
True or false. Some of the energy released in respiration is lost as heat.
In what main part of a plant does most photosynthesis take place?
What is meant by evolution?
The way organisms change genetically from pre-existing forms to produce new species over long periods of time
Give one example of the use of microorganisms in waste management.
e.g. Breaks down waste / in sewage treatment plants
What is the main source of light for photosynthesis?
The sun
In Dalmatian dogs the allele for brown spots is recessive to the allele for black spots. The two parents were heterozygous in respect of spot colour. What is the % chance of obtaining offspring with black spots?
Suggest two ways to prevent or control pollution.
Reduce, reuse, recycle
Name a group of organisms involved in nitrogen fixation.
Bacteria / Monera / Lichens/ Clover / Legumes
The haploid number of chromosomes is found in the human egg and sperm. Explain the underlined term.
Having one set of chromosomes
Carbohydrates always contain the elements carbon, hydrogen and …
Bile is involved in digestion in the human body. 1. Where is bile produced? 2. Where is bile stored? 3. Where does bile act in the alimentary canal?
1. liver
2. gall bladder
3. Duodenum / (small) intestine / ileum
In which part of the flower is pollen produced?
Anther of the stamen
In roses there is incomplete dominance between the allele governing red petals and the allele governing white petals. Heterozygous individuals have pink petals. A plant with pink petals was crossed with a plant with white petals. What is the % chance of obtaining offspring with white petals?
During photosynthesis water molecules are split into three products. Name each of these products. Describe what happens to each of the products.
Electrons, Protons (H+), Oxygen
Electrons – to chlorophyll / reference to energy / ATP
Protons / H (ions) - Pathway 2 / Dark Stage / general proton pool
Oxygen – Respiration / Excreted
What is meant by pollution?
The harmful addition to the environment (by humans) that leaves it less able to sustain life
Lipids are made up of fatty acids and …
What is meant by egestion? From where does egestion occur?
Removal of unabsorbed material from the body. From the rectum via the anus.
True or false. Lactic acid is a product of anaerobic respiration.
Write a short paragraph (about 5 lines) on waste management.
waste produced / must be disposed safely / recycled / re-used / reduce / example of waste / how managed / role of micro-organisms
In the fruit fly Drosophila the allele for full wing is dominant to the allele for vestigial wing. One parent was homozygous in respect of full wing and the other parent was heterozygous. What is the % chance of obtaining offspring with full wing?
What is the role of peristalsis in the digestive system?
push food along gut / mechanical digestion / prevents constipation
Name a fat-soluble vitamin.
A / D / E / K
Name the structures in which photosynthesis occurs in plant cells.
Name one of the scientists associated with the Theory of Natural Selection.
Darwin / Wallace
What is meant by pollination?
Transfer / of pollen / from anther to stigma
Where in the eye is the retina located?
back of the eye
Give an example of a catabolic reaction in a cell.
Respiration or fermentation or glycolysis       [allow digestion]
Name a structural carbohydrate found in plants.
Explain the terms: allele and dominant.
Allele: An alternative form of a gene
Dominant: One allele masks the expression of the other
What is the role of alveoli in the lungs?
exchange gases/ carbon dioxide out/ oxygen in / increase surface area / diffusion
What is meant by the term aerobic respiration?
The release of energy from carbohydrate using oxygen
Water enters the roots of plants by osmosis. Explain what is meant by osmosis.
movement of water through semi-permeable membrane / from region of high osmotic potential to low osmotic potential / from high concentration of water to low concentration of water / from dilute solution to concentrated solution
What process follows pollination in the life cycle of a flowering plant?
Name one good source of protein in the human diet.
(Lean) Meat / Fish / Cheese / Eggs / Pulses
(Do not accept Dairy Products)
What is a triglyceride?
Fat (or lipid or oil) unit (or molecule) or glycerol and three fatty acids or ester
In what cell structure does photosynthesis take place?
Name the tissue that transports water from the root to the leaves.
What is blood plasma? Give a role for blood plasma.
Plasma:  blood without cells/ watery liquid part of blood
Role: carries dissolved substances / named substance / waste
/ hormones / gases / blood clotting agent/ water / antibodies /
proteins / inorganic salts / fibrinogen / CO2 / Bicarbonate / Heat
Indicate clearly whether each of the following statements refers to stage 1 or to stage 2 of respiration. A. Takes place in the mitochondria, B. Produces a large amount of energy, C. Takes place in the cytoplasm, D. Does not require oxygen.
A.       Stage 2
B.       Stage 2
C.        Stage 1
D.       Stage 1
Outline the evidence for evolution from any one named source.
Fossils / comparative anatomy / embryos / DNA changes / Horse /
Vitamins may be divided into two groups depending upon their solubility. Name these two groups.
Where do the products of digestion enter the blood?
Stomach / ileum / intestine /villi / (colon) / shoulder vein
Give an example of a beneficial organism and of a harmful organism that belong to the same kingdom as Rhizopus.
Beneficial: Yeast for baking and brewing
Harmful: ringworm – parasitic fungus
List three characteristics in each case of;
1. An insect-pollinated flower,
2. A wind-pollinated flower.
1. brightly coloured petals / anthers within petals, nectaries,
2. feathery stigmas, anthers outside petals, petals absent or reduced
Name a breathing disorder. Suggest a possible cause of it and state how it may be treated.
Cause: narrowing of the bronchioles and mucus secretion
Treatment: steroid tablets or inhalers
Cause: bacteria, viruses and irritants such as cigarette smoke and air pollutants
Treatment: antibiotics if bacterial
To what group of biomolecules do enzymes belong?
State one way in which an oil differs from a fat.
Oil is liquid (at room temperature) or  fat is solid or oils are unsaturated  or explained
State two functions of symbiotic bacteria in the alimentary canal.
digest cellulose/ produce (release) vitamins/ keep harmful bacteria at bay / immunity (reference to health) / formation of faeces
Two types of cells that receive light are found in the retina. Name each of these.
Rods and cones
Name two types of cell found in the blood and give a function for each of them.
red blood cell: carries oxygen (also carries carbon dioxide)
white blood cell: defence
What is the main source of energy for photosynthesis?
The sun
How do these products of digestion pass into the blood?
by diffusion (into villi ) / absorption
Give an example of a trace element.
e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn or other correct
The action of the enzyme amylase on its substrate starch is an example of a catabolic reaction. Explain each of the underlined terms.
Substrate: the substance on which an enzyme acts to produce the product
Catabolic: Chemical reaction where larger molecules are broken down to smaller molecules
The ABO blood group system has four blood groups. What are these four groups?
A, B, AB, O
The optic nerve is attached to the eye. What is the function of the optic nerve?
carries message to brain
Suggest two reasons why life on earth might not continue without photosynthesis.
Lack of oxygen / lack of food (energy) / plants die / excess CO2 / animals die
What is meant by immobilisation of an enzyme?
An enzyme which is fixed to an inert material by chemical or physical means.
In relation to the human diet, what is meant by a trace element?
Small amount (needed) or indication of e.g. < 0.01%